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Chemical fibre

collective term for textile fibres produced from natural and synthetic polymers by chemical technologies. Spinning is performed by the displacement of a solution or the melting of a polymer by jet into an environment where fibres will solidify or coagulate, after which they will be taken for further processing. A chemical fibre may take the form of a staple similar to cotton or wool or that of a continuous filament (silk). The industrial production of chemical fibres from regenerated cellulose began at the end of the 19th century. A further milestone in the development of chemical fibres (this time synthetic and suitable for use in clothing) came in the 1930s. The discovery of polyamide fibres led to radical change and rapid development in production - a process repeated with polyakrylonitrile, and then again in the 1940s with polyester fibres. Chemical fibres should not be considered as surrogates for natural textile fibres; in many respects they are superior (eg., in terms of their tensile strength and attrition, their resistance to chemicals), as many qualities can be added to them in the course of production.a



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