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fibre from the seed of several varieties of cotton plant. Cultivated since 4000 BC in India, whence it made its way to territories including Egypt, Babylon, China and Asia Minor. Cotton fibre is unicellular, has the shape of flattened ribbon in a spiral twist, and has thickened sides. The surface of the fibre is coated with a cuticled, fine and strong skin. There is a lumen - a hollow, air-filled web - and remnants of protoplasm which run the length of the fibre. Fibre length is 10-60 μm, its thickness 12-40 μm. Cotton has the high heat resistance, heat insulation is low. Cotton does not change its properties in cold or boiled water; in wet state reaches strength and elongation. Cotton is easily dyeing ability, in sodium hydroxide is swelling, twists of fiber are straightened, their smooth surface reflects the light and cotton gets the nice gloss. Chemical composition: 94% of cellulose, 1,3% protein, 1,2% pectine, 1,2% ash, 0,6% wax; 0,3% sacharide, 1,4% others. Cotton is very important raw material for textile industry, its usage is various, it can be mixed with chemical fibers. Combination with polyester fibers improves the strength, shape and dimension stability and also easier care of end product. Pict.1: Microphotography of cotton fiber, zoom 250x, optical microscopy Pict.2: Microphotograhy of cotton fiber in polarized light with each other vertical plains of polarization, zoom 25x, optical microscopy Pict. 3: Microphotography of cotton fiber cross cuts, zoom 250x, optical microscopy


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Evropská unie Education and Culture This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication [communication] reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission.
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