textile f. produced by the strengthening of staple fibres or continuous filaments or threads, by a mechanical or physico-chemical technique or a combination of these. Mechanically strengthened n. w. f . may be knitted together by fibres (by tuxting, stitch-bonding without binding threads, liquid flow), or interlaced by a binding-thread system (by the Arachne or Mali system). N. w. f. strengthened physico-chemically use liquid binding agents (sprays, impregnation, impregnated-thread systems, printing), solid binding agents (by admixing with the surface of the fibre, pulverizing, the interleaving of fibre layers), and physical (heat shrinkage, smelting, welding) or chemical (chemical shrinkage, swelling, surface dissolving) activation. Combined n. w. f. are produced mechanically, physically or chemically. N. w. f. do not include textiles produced by weaving, knitting, embroidering or felting.